Many women (my own mother fell into this category) do not have the option to stay home to raise their children because their families need their incomes to get by. Other women (myself included) get an education, start a career, and then decide to have children – leaving them with some big choices about if and how much they should work outside of the home.
To be sure, the solution to this conundrum is different for every family. Our family has decided its best for me to work part-time from home – a choice that provides us with some extra spending money and me with some time to interact with adults on an intellectual level.
But no matter what our circumstances and choices, all mothers are concerned with one thing: what is best for their children.
There is an interesting column this week in the L.A. Times this week that addresses this very question, and delves into the evidence about working moms.
It turns out – according to a systematic review by researchers at the University of California-Irvine – that children whose mothers who return to work while they are infants and toddlers fare the same in school and behaviorally compared to children whose mothers stay home. The review looked at 69 studies over a period of 50 years that included data about children’s school performance and behavioral problems.
The only children who struggled more were those whose mothers returned to very intensive full-time employment early on – a finding that makes a case for longer maternity leaves, the researchers said.
Several factors help explain why maternal employment does not have adverse effects on child outcomes, says Sharon Sassler, associate professor of Policy Analysis and Management at Cornell.
For starters, the data shows that most women in the United States work, even after having a child (although many work part-time). Also, most children spend considerable amounts of time away from their families in school, Sassler explained, even as young as three and four years old.
But the biggest factor may be a cultural shift in parenting norms, she said.
“Even though more mothers are working, and more married families contain two working parents than in the past, various studies have revealed that children are spending more time with parents – fathers as well as mothers – than they did in the 1960s,” she said.
“The value of spending time with children has clearly increased, even if working mothers – and fathers – must decrease their own personal leisure time, devotion to house cleaning, or sleep to achieve that end. And one of the more interesting research findings is that fathers – especially men with a college degree – have increased the amount of time spent with children, both when they are married and when they do not live with their children. Not only does that offset any potential reduction resulting from working mothers time away from home, but it strengthens ties between all family members – husbands and wives or partners, as well as parents and children.”
In fact, Sassler herself is a working mother with a child in elementary school. On a personal note, she’s found that having two working parents has taught her son the value of cooperation. “He realizes that this is a team affair, and that sacrifices are sometimes required of all family members – but that we all benefit as well from the fruits of all of our labor,” she said.
To sum it up, navigating decisions about working outside of the home can certainly be a source of stress. But knowing the evidence shows that children thrive in both cases can help moms to make the decisions that are best for their families.